History of Music
The first information about the music of Azerbaijan was obtained in a number of monuments at the rock carvings during the archaeological excavations in Gobustan (XVIII-III millennium of BC) and Gamigaya (III – I BC). Rich information was given about medieval music, music genres, musical instruments in “Kitabi-Dede Gorgut” epos (VII century), works of Nizami, Fuzuli. In the risalas (journal) of such famous scholars like Safiaddin Urmavi (XIII century), Abdulqadir Maragahi (XIV century), Mirzabey (XVII century), Mir Mohsen Navvab (XIX century) the high level of development of medieval musical culture, performance, and the theoretical issues of Azerbaijani music.
The first stage of the history of Azerbaijani music consists of minstrel music art. In own creative work of art the minstrel genre of art combining the creation of poet, singer, and composer comprises the base of music genre with its genre and richness of form.
The next stage is the classical music-mughams. The creators and protectors of wealth of classical music of the past – mughams, sazandas differ with high artistic skills. The creators of the mugam, music having classic heritage with ancient roots, singers and sazandas’ art lives today and develops.
Like all song creativity of the people, mugham is being one of important forms of Oriental art determines many things in the modern composer creation, and feeds different areas of modern music of Azerbaijan.
The history of Azerbaijani music art is known with the names of many well-known mugham masters. They are masters of the nineteenth century, the well-known Sattarkhan, Haji Husi had created the famous music school of singing. Names of well-known masters of the art of the XIX century like Haji Husu, Mashadi Ishi, Alesker Shirin, tar player Sadıqjan and others, and in the early of our century Jabbar Garyaghdi, Mashadi Jamil Amirov, Seid Shushinski are known to us. From instrumental performers of mugham Gurban Pirimov, Mansur Mansurov, Ahmed Bakikhanov, Bahram Mansurov, and others gained the fame, too. Mugam ‘s regularities, its traditions were taught and spread since ancient times in special schools – meetings, circles under guidance of well known mugham masters Kharrat Gulu (Shusha), Mahmud aga (Shamakhy), Mashadi Malik Mansurov (Azerbaijan), and others. They have played an important role in the formation of school performance of Azerbaijan.
As early as the beginning of century so many thought that as because of absence of temper in the folk musical instruments, it was not possible to write Azerbaijani music in notes. This problem in the development of musical art of Azerbaijan was solved only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Its solution shows that Azerbaijani music was included in to the overall system of professional musical culture of the world. In January 12 (25), 1908 the premiere of the opera of U. Hajibeyov “Leyli and Majnun” was held. The performance laid the foundation of the national opera and all professional composer creative development of Azerbaijan. This opera, as well as so called mugham operas written by U.Hajibeyov before revolution and his subsequent operas – “Sheikh Sanan”, “Asli and Kerem”, “Rustam and Sohrab”, “Shah Abbas and Khurshud Banu”, as well as opera of Zulfugar Hajibeyov “Ashiq Garib» , Muslum Magomayev’s “Shah Ismail” are deep specific examples of creativity included in the national history of music. Most valuable aspects of operas written in the following years were developed in the works.
The synthesis of the musical style of European professional recording equipment and national music was shown self in the first work “Arshin mal alan”, which had brought the world fame for Azerbaijan and its music. “Arshin mal alan”, which had been translated into 40 languages more than 70 years are sound in different countries, and regardless of age and music training captive all the audience.
30-th years of XX century is characterized as a period the rise in Azerbaijani music. During these years the new performance collectives, symphonic orchestras (1920, presently Azerbaijan State Symphony Orchestra named after U. Hajibayov), Chorus (1926), Orchestra of Folklore Musical Instruments (1931), dance ensemble (1936), Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society named after M. Magomayev (1936), the Union of Composers of Azerbaijan(1934), Musical Comedy Theatre (1938, now named after Sh.Qurbanov), House of the People’s Creativity (1939), office of music for collecting and study of folk music of the Azerbaijan under the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (1931) were organized.
60-80-years distinguish with creative activity of old generation music composers and the emergence of new composers earning success in all important genres, the expansion of international relations. Opera and ballet turn to be genre which addressed by Azerbaijani composers. A Melikov’s “Legend of Love” (1961), F. Amirov’a “Legend about Nasimi” (1973; Azerbaijan SSR State Prize, 1974), “Arabian Nights” (1979, USSR State Prize, 1980) ballets gained fame all over the world.
Works of Azerbaijani composers Gara Garayev, Afrasiyab Badalbeyli, Fikret Amirov, Niyazi, Arif Melikov, T. Guliyev, Vasif Adigozalov, Azer Rzayev, Rauf Hajiyev, Firangiz Alizade, Agshin Alizade, Faraj Garayev, Rahila Hasanova and others are an integral art of the twentieth century world music. R. Behbudov, Niyazi, Z. Khanlarova, M. Magomayev, etc. gained wide popularity. Artists F. Gasimova (1977, Italy, 1st prize), KH. Gasimova (1981, Athens, 1st prize; 8th International Competition named after P.I.Chaykovski. (1982, Moscow) 2nd Prize) , pianist F. Badalbeyli (1967, Qradets-Králové, CSSR, 1968, in Lisbon, Portugal, 1st prize), the young pianists M. Huseynov, M. Adigozalzadeh and others were laureates of various competitions.
Azerbaijani composer and pianist V. Mustafazade had an important role in the development of the jazz in Azerbaijan. V. Mustafazade was a head of “Sevil” and “Mugham” ensembles, organized by him and was awarded the 1st prize at the 8th International Jazz Competition (Monte-Carlo, 1978).
In the history of the Azerbaijani music singers Kh. Shushinski, R.Muradovar, Sh. Alekperova, A. Aliyev, S. Qadimova, F. Mehraliyev, T. Ismayilov, A. Babayev, I. Rzayev, Z. Adigozalov, H. Huseynov, G. Rustamov, J. Akperov, A. Kasimov, A. Bakikhanov, from tar players H. Mamedov, B. Mansurov, A. Guliyev, R.Guliyev, A.Dadasov, M. Muradov, F.Alekberov, kamancha players People’s Artist of Azerbaijan H.Aliyev, honored artist H. Mirzaliyev, T. Bakikhanov, Sh.Eyvazova, F. Dadashov, drummer Ch Mehdiyev, accordion players Abutalib (A. Yusifov), Kor Ahad, Kerbalayi Latif, T. Demirov, A. Israfilov, saz players A.Nasibov and etc had special services.
At present, the subject of Karabakh comprises an important part of music history of Azerbaijan. Among them are V. Adygozelov; “Karabakh Shikeste” and “Caravan of Grief” (1999) oratorio, T.Bakikhanov’s “Karabakh cry” (2001) symphony, A. Alizade’s “Motherland” (1993) ode, 7th Symphony (1998) of N.Mamedov, dedicated to Khojaly tragedy, R. Mustafayevs’ ‘Truth with you, Azerbaijan” (1992) cantata, H. Khanmammadov’s “My saz will cry in hands” poem for folk instruments (1991, dedicated to the Garabagh martyrs), S.Ibrahimova’s “Country martyrs” (1990) cantata, “I miss you, my Shusha” (1999) for tar and string orchestra, and others occupy a special place. In 2002, the ballet of A. Alizade, “Trip to the Caucasus” based on work of A. Duma was staged for the first time. During these years one-act ballet of T. Bakikhanov’s “Good and Evil” (1990), N.Mameov’s “Sheikh Sanan”, O. Zulfugarov ‘s “Alibaba and 40 Thieves” (1990) ballet was written.
During the period of independence Azerbaijani composers had opportunities to participate at the various music festivals, international contests, world cultural musical projects in abroad, to represent the music of Azerbaijan in the world, to introduce it again. Works of A. Malikov, V. Adygozelov, X. Mirzazade, A. Alizadeh, T. Bakikhanov, F. Garayev, I.Hajıbayov, F.Alizade, J. Guliyev, E. Dadashova, R. Hasanova, G. Mamedov, F. Huseynov were sounded in Turkey, Norway, Holland, Cyprus, USA, Switzerland, Germany, Thailand, etc. countries, were the winners of prestigious competitions. Premieres of A. Melikov (Symphony No. 7), V. Adygozelov (“Chanaqqala” oratorio) in Turkey, T. Bakikhanav (“North Cyprus Seasons”, “North Cyprus suite”) and others were held in Cyprus. In Holland works of F. Garayev (“Kutba, Mugham, Sura” “Babylon Hour” 2000), F.Alizade’s (“Mirage”), R. Hasanova’s (“Sky”) were performed. In “Silk Road” project F.Alizade’s (“Dervish”), and J. Guliyev’s (“Caravan”) participation resulted in the success. F. Huseynov was the winner of competition held by UNESCO and Japan (“Time travel” concert for symphonic orchestra) and has been awarded with United Nations’ award (“Let the peace be in the world” oratorio)
In 1999 skilful mugham performer A.Kasimov was awarded the gold medal of the UNESCO for his contribution to the development and perfection of the mugham art. In the International Festival held in France, with performance of the Azerbaijan State Symphony Orchestra (artistic director and conductor, people’s artist R. Abdullayev) works of U. Hajibayov, G. Garayev, and F. Amirov were performed successfully. In Germany, at “Expo – 2000” International Exhibition a brilliant performance of Azerbaijan State Chamber Orchestra, the State Song Theatre, the State Dance Ensemble and a group of art workers has been at the focus of the music life of this era.
In 2003, there was the premiere of “Khan’s daughter Natavan” (2003, December) opera of V. Adygozelov dedicated to the poetess Natavan. This work of our famous composer has taken a worthy place in the history development of the national opera.
In 2009, I Gabala International Music Festival, held in the city of Gabala had a unique role in the history of the Azerbaijani music and turned into some kind of a tradition. The II Qabala International Music Festival held in 2010 caused a great resonance in the world.
After the restoration of state independence of Azerbaijan international relations in the field of music were e expanded, too. International music festivals are organized in Baku with the participation of foreign musicians. At the same time world range musicians – Mstislav Rostropovich, Bella Davidovich, Dmitry Sitkovetski visited Baku with great enthusiasm, performed in concerts, have open lessons.
Of the recent events “Silk Road – the First Symphony and Chamber Music Festival” (2010) caused a great resonance.
Azerbaijani folk songs
Song is much-loved musical genre. The life of the Azerbaijani people, the struggle, fine-human emotions, joy and sorrow are reflected in folk songs. Azerbaijani folk songs, all based on the classic mughams, and benefited from them.
The most ancient songs are “Shepherd’s sound” , “Tutu grandmother”, “Milking song”, “Flower, plough the land”, “Song of plough”.
7. “Hey, let me put roses on your roads”
9. “Stayed in lowland”
10. “Hey, girl, I’m your lover”
13. “Jalal Khalig”
14. “Come on other way”
18. “What beautiful mountains”
21. “I came”
22. “You are my love”
23. “I came”
24. “In garden of beauty”
28. “Play, my Love”
29. “Pedestrian Koroglu”
31. “From tower to tower”
32. “I was sleeping in fortress”
33. “Qatyr Mammed”
37. “Sona khanum”
42. “Henna dying”
Mugham is a national music form belonging to the peoples of the East. It is an example of classical music based on oral traditions. Mugam forms the base of Azerbaijan folk music. There are seven main mugham in music of Azerbaijan: “Rast”, “Shur”, “Segah”, “Shushtar”, “Chargah”, “Bayati-Shiraz”, “Humayun”.
Mughams differ from each other according to the original essence and nature of music. Uzeir Hajibeyov in his scientific-theoretical book “Basis of Azerbaijan folk music” characterizes an explains the mood given to listeners by mughams as: “Rast” inspires a courage and cheerfulness in listeners , “Shur” – funny, lyrical mood, “Segah” – a feeling of love, “Shushter” – a deep sadness, “Chargah” – a feeling of excitement and passion, “Bayati-Shiraz” – sadness, “Humayun” – creates a feeling of deep sorrow.
Mugam is performed by trio of tar, kamancha, and folk singer.
But mughams performed in solo at Azerbaijan national musical instruments is called as “instrumental mughams”.
Works of Azerbaijani composers in its roots are connected with mughams. This is aspect of their national specificity.
Fikret Amirov by composing in 1948 “Shur” and “Kurd-Ovsarı” symphonic mugams had laid a foundation of symphonic mugham music genre in history of world music literature. “Rast” symphonic mugham of well-known composer and conductor Niyazi (1949) is a work created in this genre.
MUGHAM MASTERS – Many well-known Azerbaijani Mugam masters- performers included in the music art of Azerbaijan. They are masters of the art of the nineteenth century, Sattar, Haji Husi – who established popular school of mugham. From well-known masters of the art of the XIX century names of Sattar, Haji Husu, Mashadi Isi, Alesker Shirin, tar player Sadıqjanın and others, an in the beginning of our century Jabbar Qaryagdıoglu, Mashadi Jamil Amirov, Seid Shushinski, Kechechi oglu Mahammad, Mashad Mammad Farzaliyev, Islam Abdullayev and others should be cites especially.
Khan Shushinski, Zulfu Adigozalov, Hashim Kalantarli, Huseyngulu Sarabski, Haqiqat Rzayeva, Surayya Gajar, Fatma Mukhtarova are famous singers lived in the early twentieth century. During this period, the instrumental mugham performers like Qurban Pirimov, Mansur Mansurov, Ahmed Bakikhanov, Bahram Mansurov and others can be noted.
SYMPHONIC MUGAM – the genre was created in 1948 by composer Fikret Amirov. The main feature of the genre is that the music here kept the dramaturgic moving line, gradual development principle in ascending order, its composition specific to dastgah, and at the same time symphonic working, different methods of orchestra were applied in development of mugham melodies.
Many composers of Azerbaijan have applied to this genre. Niyazi created “Rast”, S. Alasgarov “Bayati-Shiraz”, F. Amirov “Gulistan Bayati-Shiraz”, T. Bakikhanov “Humayun”, “Neva”, “Rahab”, etc. symphonic mughams.
ZARBI MUGHAM – vocal and instrumental genre of music in oral tradition professional music in Azerbaijan. Creation of zarb mugams, formation and development is connected with performance of the folk singers and ensembles. In the text of the zarbi mugams ghazals of classic poets, as well as bayati and qoshma are used. Widespread zarbi mugams in practice of Azerbaijan mugham performance: “Heyraty”, “Mansuriyya”, “Samayi-Shams”, “Maani”, “Ovsharı” (“Afsarı”), “Arazbarı”, “Heydari”, “Garabaghh Shikeste”, “Kesme shikasta”,”Shirvan Shikeste “, etc.
“Rast” is considered as the mother of all mugams. It has a very ancient history. From 12 main mugams of classical Eastern music only “Rast” mugam has some sections and parts that stood against events of the time with the devastating impact. Main of them are “Mayeeyi-Rast” , “Usshaq”, “Husseini”, “Vilayati”, “Araq” and “” Panjgah”.
Like “Rast” and “Chargah” mughams this mugham has big volume as well. There are a lot of sections. “Shur” dastgah with parts that are included in “Mayeyi-Shur”, “Shur-Shahnaz”, “Bayati-Gajar”, “Shikasteyi-fars”, “Simayi-Shams”, “Hijaz”, “Saranj” has more in-depth content and complete system, the form.
One of the wide-spread and having deep national characteristics mugams in Azerbaijan is “Segah”. Singer and players perform “Segah” mugham in a number of ways: “The Middle Segah” (or “Zabul Segah”), “Mirza Hussein segah.” Though they differ from each other in names and tone but thay have same basis. “Segah” consists of four sections: “Mayeyi-Segah”, “Shikasteyi-Fars”, “Mubarriqa”, “Araq.”
“Shushtar” is the smallest mugam in volume. Mainly consists of “Mayeyi-Shushtar” and “Tarkib” sections. As in other mughams when “Shushtar” performed in the form of the dastgah its starts with “Bərdast” introduction, and expands volume thanks to some color and tasnifs. At this time, “Shushtar” mugham is sounded mostly in instrumental version, in particular, in kamancha.
Known as the pearl of the classic works of art “Chahargah” mugam differs with very active spirit. Music of “Chahargah” mugham is full of contradictory intonations. Art image in “Mayeyi-Chargah” section is developed and approved in larger scale and intensive form. One of the main factors of maye section of “Chargah” mugham that proves an importance is that section continues its development in “Hasar” and “Mansuriyya” sections and gets more dramatic, more lively nature. This is due to the fact that “Mayeyi-Chargah” once again has “anxious” intonations worthy for active, very useful and the intensive development.
For the deep influence of its listeners, “Bayati-Shiraz” is not back from other famous mughams. It has “Mayeyi-Bayati-Shiraz”, “Nisibi-Faraz”, “Bayati Isfahan”, “Khavaran”, “Huzzal” sections.
In “Bayati-Shiraz” mugham one of the biggest and largest sections is “Mayeyi-Bayati-Shiraz”, and another “Bayati-Isfahan”.
“Humayun” mugam is also widely spread in music of the peoples of the Middle East. Main parts of “Humayun” mugam: “Mayeyi-Humayun”, “Shushtar” and “Tarkib” sections.
In Instrumental version “Mayeyi-Humayun” is paid more and more attention, and all characteristic features ofthe department are noted.
ARAZBARI – one of the zarb mughams. It is based on Shur point. The poetic text consists of folk bayatı At the end of each paragraph, words “Ay zalim- hey despot” are repeated. Included in creative legacy of master ashugs like ashiq songs.
BAYATI – AJEM – mugham section. 2nd main part included in “Bayati-Kurd” small volume mugam (Ajem – in Arabic means people who are not Arab, and means “bayati of Ajam”).
BAYATI – ISFAHAN – Mugam section. One of the main sections of “Bayati-Shiraz” mugham dastgah.
BAYATI – KURD – small-scale mugham. Included in “Shur” family of mughams. The structure consists of three sections: a) “Bayati-Kurd” b) “Bayati-Ajem” c) “Bayati-Kur foot.”
BAYATI – GAJAR – mugham dastgah. A set consists of “Bardast”, “Maye”, “Husseini”, “Shikasta”, “Zil Bayati-Gajar”, “Zamin khara”, “Dugah”, “Mavarannahr”, “Shah Khatai”, “Ruhul-arvah”.
BAYATI – RAJE – One of sections of “Afshari” mugam from “Shur” mugham family.
BAYATI – TURK – mugham section. Being included in “Shur” mugam, it forms transition to Rast point.
BAKHTIYARI – One of the first section sin “Humayun” dastgah.
BARDASHT – introduction type mugham section, entry of dastgah. It is performed before “Maye” section. And acts as preparatory to this section. Each of the mugham dastgah begins with “Bardasht”.
BESTE – NİGAR – mugham section. One of the parts of “Chahargah” dastgah.
BIDAD – (in literal sense, complaint against injustice). Section of sad and sorrowful mood performed in “Humayun” dastgah’s 5th fifth step.
JAMARDAN – in Eastern music: section than sung before “Bakhtiyari” section in “Humayun” dastgah; One of 1st sections of “Bayati Isfahan” dastgah.
JIDAYI – mugham section. 2nd section of small-scale “Dashti” mugam from “Shur” family of mugham (in Persian “cidayi” –means “javelin”, “bayonet’). It has anxious feature.
DASHTI – (in Arabic: dasht means steppe, desert) – a small-scale mugham. Belongs to “Shur” mugam family.
DILKASH – music section. 2nd part of “Shahnaz” small-scale mugham. It is performed between “Shahnaz” and “Saddi -Shahnaz”.
DUGAH – Mugham. One of mughams belonging to “Rast” mugham family. It is performed in the mi bemol rast point tones. Main sections: “Bardasht”, “Mayeyi Dugah”, “Guseyi-Bayati Gajar”, “Ruhul-Arvah”, “Mavarannahr”, “Husseini”, “Shikasteyi-Fars”, “Dilruba”, “Araq”, “Zangi-Shutur”, “Rak” and “Dugah”
ABU-ETA – One of small volume mughams belonging to “Shur” family. It includes “Hijaz”, “Chahar-bagh”, “Sayyahi”, “Salmi” (“Salmak”) sections.
ABULCHAP – mugham section. A small section played in “Bayati-Shiraz” mugham after “Bayati-Isfahan”
AMIRI – mugham section. It is performed in the beginning of “Shushtar” and “Rahab” mughams.
HAJI YUNI – mugham section. According to the information of A. Badalbeyli,it was performed in music of Azerbaijan in XIX century in “Ravahi” dastgah between “Bayati-Shiraz” and “Saranj” and between “Shahnaz” and “Bayati-Kurd” in “Neva” dastgah.
HAZIN- mugham section. It is used in “Shur”, “Chahargah”, “Neva” dastgah.
HUSSEINI (in Arabic “fine”) –one of 12 basic mughams of the classical music of the the Middle Ages of the Eastern peoples. . It is performed in “Rast” and “Mahur HIndi” mugham dastgahs between “ Usshaq” and “Vilayati” sections.
KHARAZMI – one of the mugham sections.
KHARIJ SEGAH – one of dastgah included in “Segah” mugham family. Being one option of “Segah” mugham it is formed down from “Middle Segah”in kvarta, in “si” segah set point.
KHAVARAN –mugham section. It is performed between “Khojasta” and “Araq” sections in “Rast” dastgah; between “Bayati-Isfahan” and “Uzzal” in “Bayati-Shiraz” dastgah.
KERESHME (Persian: wink ) – One section performed in the beginning of “Mahur” and “Chahargah” dastgah.
KASMA SHIKASTA – Azerbaijani zarbi mugam. “Kasma Shikasta” sometimes called as “Baku Shikeste”. It poetic text consists of folk bayatıs. This zarbi mugham occupies a special place in the creation of female folk singers.
KURDI – mugham section. As it in the base of “Bayati – Kurd” mugham it is called “Kurdi”.
KURD-OVSAR – Zarbi mugham in “Shur” dastgah base. In the same well-known symphonic mugham of the composer Fikret Amirov “Ovsharı” along with mugham “Maani ‘(‘ Osmanı”) zarbi mugham has been widely used.
KURD-SHAHNAZ – mugham in “Shur” base.
CAUCASUS HUMAYUN – one kind of “HUmayun’ mugham existed in Azerbaijani music practice at the beginning of the twentieth century.
GARABAGH SHIKESTESI- Zarbi mugham in Azerbaijani oral tradition music. It is based on Seqah point. Size is 24. The poetic text is from folk bayatıs.
QATAR – small-scale mugham. Belongs to “Rast” family of mugham. The structure consists of three sections. “Zil Qatar”, “Mayeyi Qatar”, “Zil qatar. It is sung in rast point tones.
QATAR-BAYATI – Formed from combination of intonation of “Qatar” Mugam and “Shepherd bayati” mugams. This Mugam compared from “Qatar” mugham is completed with “Shepherd bayatı” cadences.
QAMANGIZ – part in “Dast” mugam.
QARAI – section coming after “Araq” and “Panjgah” in “Rast” Mugam dastgah. Lowering from zil (up) of mugham to bam (down) is characteristic for “Qarai” section.
QARRA – Mugam section in the ancient Eastern music.
MAANI – Zarbi mugam of “Shur” mugam family. In mugham performance practice this zarbi mugham is called “Osmanly”. “Maani” is sung on folk poetry. Here afeelings and passions of hero, application to loverl, visual dream and pains are described. Music text was written in march type and had restrained character.
MAHUR-HINDI- mugham dastgah. Included in a family of Rast mugham. Forms one of options of kvarta up of “Rast” dastgah. Based on the maya rast with point tones. Set: “Bardasht”, “Mayeyi-mahur”, “Usshaq”, “Husseini”, “Vilayati”, “Shikasteyi-fars”, “Araq”, “Qarai” consists ofsections and parts.
MANSURİYYA – 1. Section that played in Chahargah mugham after “Mukhalif”, culmination of mugham. 2. Zarbi mugham in Chahargah root.
MANANDA-HASAR – Section played after “Bardasht” section in “Zabul Segah” mugham.
MANANDA-MUKHALIF – mugham section. Section located between “Muya” and “Segah” sections in “Zabul Segah” mugham.
MASIHI – mugham section.Section played in “Rahab” mugham after “Dilruba”, in “Rast” dastgah after “Vilayati” .
SEGAH OF MIRZA HUSSEIN – Dastgah included in “Segah”
mugam family. It was named after Mirza Hussain – Azerbaijani folk singer (XVIII century) that first performed it.
MUYA – mugham section. It is used in a number of dastgah.
MUKHALIF – Section of mugham. It is performed in “Chahargah” mugham.
MEHAYYAR –Part played after “Araq” section in “Mahur” dastgah
MUKHALIF – section between “Hasar” and “Maghlub” in “Chahargah” dastgah.
NAHAVAND – music section. Section performed in Eastern music in “Segah” dastgah after “Guseyi-Madai”.
NAHIB – 1. Vocal instrumental episode performed in Shur dastgah between the Husseini and Araq sections. 2. Vocal instrumental part between Muhayyar and Mubarriqa sections in Rast dastgah.
RAHAB – Small-volume mugham. It has an ancient history. It is included in “Shur” family of mughams. Includes: “Amiri”, “Sikasteyi-Fars”, “Araq”, “Qarai.” “Masihi”, “Rahaba-ayaq”
SAQINAMA – music section, this name was connected with the pattern of oriental poetry, meaning “love song”; it is fun joyful instrumental music performed in a live in dastgah. It is found while performing “Shur”, “Humayun”, “Mahur” mugams.
SARANJ (sarang) – 1. Section located between “Hijaz” and “Nisibi-faraz” in “Shur” dastgah. It is close to segah for basis point. “Shur” mugham brings motley to composition in segah point within the transition 2. U.Hajibeyov had shown saranj in the line additional points.
SEGAH-ZABUL – One of mugham variants included in “Segah” mugam family.
SALMAK – music section. It is sounded in “Shur” dastgah before the “Shur-Shahnaz” section and has an importance of the transition. It is performed between “Dashti” and “Muya” sections; one of 6 voices in music of the Middle Ages of the East.
SAMAYI-SHAMS – Mugam riddles. It is based on the Shur point.
SUZI-GUDAZ – Last sections of “Mahur” and “Rahab” dastgahs.
SHAHNAZ – 1.Small volume mugham. In the practice of the XIX century Azerbaijani music performance, both independent mugham dastgah and section. Consist of 3 parts “Shahnaz”; 2. Dilkash, “Zil Shahnaz” (“Shaddi Shahnaz”). 2. One of 6 voices in the music of Middle Ages.
SHAH KHATAI – 1.Section of “Shahnaz” dastgah in XIX century Azerbaijani music. 2. Traditional minstrel music.
SHADDI -SHAHNAZ – section of mugham. “Shadd” is a melody that sung most loudly and means “Shahnaz’s loud voice”.
SHAHDI-SHAHNAZ – mugham section. Means “Shahnaz’s honey”.
SHIKASTEYI-FARS – section of mugham. Based on segah point. It is used in many mughams like “Rast”, “Mahur- Hindi”, “Bayati-Gajar”, “Shur”, “Segah”, “Mirza Hussein segah”, “Zabul-Segah”, “Dashti”, “Bayati-Shiraz “, etc.
SHUR-SHAHNAZ – Department of Music. It is included in the “Shur” mugham dastgah. It is performed after “Maveyi-Shur” section and makes new stage of development. A reference level of “Shur-Shahnaz” is located four steps (kvarta) over up (do shur).
TARABANGIZ – Section between “Khavaran” and “Nishanpurak” in “Mahur” dastgah.
TARKIB– mugham section. One of the main parts of “Shushtar” mugam. Section between “Shushter” and “Uzzal” in “Humayun” mugam.
USSHAQ – It is performed in “Rast”, “Mahur-Hindi”, “Orta Mahur” dastgahs after “Maye” section (between “Maye” and “Huseyni”).
UZZAL – section of mugham. In “Bayati-Shiraz” dastgah it is sung after “Khavaran” section.
VILAYATI – section of mugham. One of the principal sections performed in “Rast” and “Mahur-Hindi” dastgahs.
YETIM -SEGAH – It was mugam in Azerbaijan oral tradition professional music. A version in “Segah” mugham. It is performed in just Segah tone. Usually, a mugam that causes a sad mood in listener is called such.
YADI-HASAR – mugham section. It is located between “Araq” and “Ashiri-Gush” in “Zabul Segah”.
ZABUL SEGAH – Mugam. One of the biggest mugham dastgahs in the folklore music heritage of Azerbaijan. It is included in “Segah” family of music. One of the variants of “Segah” mugam. Set: “Mayeyi-Zabul,” “Muya”, “Manandi-mukhalif”, “Segah”, “Makhluq”, “Shikasteyi-Fars”, “Mubarriqa”, “Araq”, “Yadi-hasar”, “Ashiqi-Gush sections.
ZAMIN-KHARA – 1. Section located between “Mansuriyya” and “Rak-hisar” in “Rast” dastgah ; between “Bayati- Gajar” and “Mavarannahr” in “Rahab” dastgah; between “Mansuriyya” and “Maverannahr” sections in “Chahargah” dastgah in XIX centuries; 2. At present, section sung after “Samayi-shams” in “Shur” Mugam.
ZANGI-SHUTUR – A section of Music. Included in composition of some mugams. A section located at the end of “Rast “,”Dugah “,”Mahur -Hindi” dastgahs between “Araq “and ” Raq” divisions; It is performed in “Chahargah” and “Neva” dastgahs between “Ashrian” and ” Kerkuki” .
ZIRAFKEND – 1. One of the 12 mughams forms the base of classical music of Eastern peoples of the Middle Ages. 2. At present, the part of Music. A part located between the “Fili” and “Abul” in “Mahur” dastgah.
Folk singing is an art that promote, makes live and preserve folk music, which is expressing mean of people’s spiritual world. Famous folk singers had a big contribution in development of music culture. These folk singers were a leading force in development of many genres of music art. The folk singers that created music culture of oral traditional music culture and enriched our culture, at the same had a big contribution in formation of Azerbaijani opera and composing creativity.
Azerbaijani folk singers
Aghabala Aghasaid oglu (1860 – 1928).
Aghabala Mammadbagır oglu Abdullayev (1910 -1976)
Aghakhan Minakhan oglu Abdullayev (1950)
Alim Hamza oglu Qasımov (1957)
Arif İmran oglu Babayev (1938).
Aygun Aliqulu qızı Bayramova (1967).
Baba Mahmud oglu Mirzayev (1940 – 2006)
Bahadır Mehralıoglu (1883 – 1962)
Bakir Musa oglu Hashımov (1926 – 1989)
Jabbar Qaryagdıoglu (Jabbar Mashadi İsmayıl oglu’s pseudonym; 1861 – 1944)
Janali Khanali oglu Akbarov (1940)
Jumshud Malıbeyli (1845– 1915)
Eynulla Eynulla oglu Jabrayılov (1935 – 1992)
Eynulla Fatulla oglu Asadov (1930 – 1976)
Abdulbaqi Karbalayi Ali oglu Zulalov (pseudonym “Bulbuljan”; 1841 – 1927)
Abulfat Asad oglu Aliyev (1926 – 1990)
Alasgar Baba oglu Abdullayev (1866 -1929).
Alibaba Balaahmad oglu Mammadov (1930)
Fehruz Amirkhan oglu Mammadov (1972)
Haji Husu Neftali oglu (appokh. 1830, Shusha – 1898, Ashqabad).
Hajıbaba Huseynali oglu Huseynov (1919 – 1993)
Hashım Samad oglu Kalantarli (1899 -1984)
Hamid Malıbeyli (Gurbanov Hamid İmamqulu oglu’s pseudonym; 1869 – 922)
Khan Shushinski (İsfandiyar Aslan oglu Javanshirov’s pseudonym; 1901 – 1979)
İqbali Azer Abulhasankhan (Abdulhasankhan Musa oglu’s pseudonym; 1870 – 1971)
İslam Tapdıq oglu Rzayev (1934 – 2008)
Garakhan İmran oglu Behbudov (1935).
Qadir Cherkez oglu Rustamov (1935-2011)
Gulu Rustam oglu Asgerov (1928 – 1989)
Majid Behbudalı oglu Behbudov (1873 – 1945).
Mahammad Kechachioglu (Mahammad Mashadi Khalil oglu’s pseudonym; 1864 – 1940)
Mahammadhasan İsmayıl oglu Mirza (1951– 1917)
Malekkhanım Mazahir qızı Eyyubova (1963)
Mammad oglu Agha Mirza Ali Asger Garabaghi (XIX sentury)
Mammadbaghır Mammadali oglu Baghırzade (1950 – 2005)
Mansum İsrafil oglu İbrahimov (1960)
Mashadi Mammad Farzaliyev (1872– 1962)
Mirjavadov Mirmammad Mirbala oglu (04.10.1953, Bakı) – folk singer, mugahm expert.
Mirza Gullar (XIV century Sabirabad region – Shamakhy).
Mirza Mukhtar Mirza Alasgar oglu Mammadov (1841 -1929)
Musa Farhad oglu Shushinski (1893 – 1971)
Murshud Salim oglu Mammadov (1932 -1996)
Mutallim Kabla oglu Mutallimov (1909 – 1981).
Nariman Movsum oglu Aliyev (1930 – 1998)
Nazakat Khosrov qızı Teymurova (1972)
Novruz Sabzali oglu Feyzullayev (1932 -2008)
Sabir Ali oghlu Abdullayev (1957).
Sara Babish qızı Qadimova (1922 – 2005)
Seyid Mirtaghı oglu Mirbabayev (1867– 1953)
Seyid SHushinski (Mir Movsum agha Setid İbrahim oghlunun takhallusu; 1889-1965)
Safa Huseyn oglu Qahramanov (1949 – 2008)
Sakhavat Amirkhan oglu Mammadov (1953 – 1991)
Sakina Qulu qızı İsmayılova (1956)
Sattar (1820 – …)
Suleyman Jumshud oglu Abdullayev (1939).
Teymur Aghakhan oglu Mustafayev (1939)
Talat Mammadagha oglu Qasımov (1933)
Tohva Aliqulu qızı Aliyeva (1922 – 2007)
Tukazban Maharram qızı İsmayılova (1923 – 2008)
Yaqub Mahammad oglu Mammadov (1930 – 2002)
Yavar Ali qızı Kalantarli (Zamanova; 1902 – 1979)
Zahid Abdulla oghlu Quliyev (1961)
Zulfi (Zulfiqar) Samad bey oghlu Adıgozalov (1898 – 1963).
Zumrud Movlud qızı Mammadova (1954)
Dances have a connection with history. These dances reflect life, the daily life problems of the people. There are different types and genres of dance art in Azerbaijan. Most of the folk dances are men and women’s dances. However, there are pair (duet) dances, too. There are group dances consisted of a certain number of participants. Traditional male-female dances have funny and optimistic character, high temps. “Qazagı” dance can be an example of it. Music of “Qazagı” is notable for its modesty and ardency. Dance gradually gets a speed and ends with high temps. Woman dances are with inner silence, tranquilly and modesty. “Uzundere”, “Halay”, “Gulgaz”, “Yuzbir”, “Innaby”, “Bagdagullu”, “Vaghzaly” are such dances. “Uzundere” as a usual is danced in wedding ceremonies, when the bride is going to home of groom. The size of music of this dance is 8/6. “Uzundere” has lyrical, expressive, and attractive melody. This lyrical dance was used by U. Hajibeyov in “If not, then this” musical comedy (Mashadi Ibad’s couplets).
Men’s dances are with passionate feelings, quick rhythm, power, temperament. For example, “Qaytagı”, “Jangi”, “Qazagı”, “Khanchobany” and others
15. “Nelbeki -Saucer”
18. “Dance with qaval”
20. “Red Rose”
27. “One hundred one”
Classical music is called those works that already became the history, and tested of time. However, its audience is still preserved in modern society, kept, loved and heard.
The formation of the classical music of Azerbaijan
In terms of the notion of classical music in the history of music in the twentieth century it is a remarkable milestone. Namely during that period the composer’s school was established in the country distinguished with the highest professionalism, the original musical style. Azerbaijan gets integrated into general system of professional musical culture of the world, Azerbaijani composers and performers raised till the world music level.
The founder of the professional classical music is considered great composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov.
At the end of the 30-es – early of 40-es the new generation of composers grows. The range of creative searches is expanding, new genres, new tendencies appeared. The leading European music trends like neoclassicism, dodecaphony, serial technique, used in resulting national basis and resulted in findings of interesting works of art. The most important thing is that the Azerbaijani music is already crossed borders of the country, gained fame at international level. Such a huge success in the first is related to the creative search of three great artists Gara Garayev (1918-1982), Fikrat Amirov (1922-1984) and Niyazi (1912-1984). They works were sounded in many countries of the world and recorded in disks and prizes were awarded. Niyazi that was awarded with “Jawaharlal Nehru”, “Medal of Bela Bartok” and a number of international prizes was one of great conductors of our time.
During 30-40-es in the music of Azerbaijan great classic music composers like Said Rustamov (1907-1983) and T. Guliyev (1917-2000) were appeared. S. Rustamov “Alagez”, “For your sake”, “You did not come”, “Surayya”, “Sing, tar”, etc., T. Guliyev was inspired from Azerbaijan’s folk music traditions, as well as pop and jazz music of Europe “It will not remain for your”, “Golden Ring”, “I became happy”, “A song about Baku”, “Zubeyde”, etc. songs are beautiful examples of classical music of Azerbaijan.
About ashuq music
Ozan-ashug art form began to form in Azerbaijan since ancient times.
Ashiq’s art is a music form of oral art formed in folk environment and in terms of impact strength, popularity and uniqueness of maturity it is an expression having no analogue. This is a small performance, the music, saz and author-ashug make here unity.
Ashiq art includes songs praising of ancient epic legends, people, freedom, heroism, friendship, love songs. Ashiq art is synthetic, that is, ashig (minstrel) composes music, writes poetry, plays saz and dances simultaneously. And wind instruments ensemble and balaban often accompany ashiq. However, the main instrument of ashig is saz. Saz is ancient stringed musical instrument. The most common genre of ashiq art is the epic genre, that is epics, especially the heroic eposes. Vocal and instrumental parts in epics replace poems with parts of speech.
In lyrical genre of ashiq art praising ( tariflama), beatification (“gozallama”) are specially famous. This “gozallama” can be devoted both to the lovely, beautiful woman and the hero, for example, brave Koroglu, its legendary Qırat. Part of the ashiq songs is full of sadness, (“Yaniq Karami”, “Dilqami”), and the other part can be like in “Afsharı” “Sharili” songs, which are wonderful examples of ashug lyrics.
In ashiq art ustadname genre is also interesting like advising songs.
The genres of the national poetry qoshma, mukhammas, ustadname, qıfılband, as well as its poetic forms like garayli, divani, qoshma, tajnis are favorite songs of ashug. These forms may be included in legends.
The most widely used poem rhyme in the ashuq creation is syllable. Structure of major ashuq songs is four (verse) form. Each and every couplet of verse has the beginning and each couplet is separated from each other with the instrumental solo.
In ancient times and Middle Ages ashuqs called as “ozan- minstrel”, “varsaq”, “dada”.
The most ancient written sources on predecessors of modern Azerbaijani ashig – ozan, their ancient life, love, patriotism, the bravery is folk epos of the seventh century, “Dede Korkut” .
Historically, musical folklore had a big influence on the creativity of composers. For the first time features of ashug music were used in the opera of the composer U.Hajibayov’s “Koroglu”. Another composer Gara Garayev combining technical means of modern music with ashuq music could manage to create its combination in the second part of the third symphony.
Although ashuq art like set of arts combine few arts in self but the main place in this set is of traditional havajat (songs’ set). The traditional ashuq songs’ set rich with means of musical description and artistic summarizing is characterized by aesthetic constant value, polished language-style, deep philosophical means, and ethical orientation.
Expressiveness of oral folk poetry (“fingers count” syllable rhyme) and writing poetry (aruz) comprises the base of poetry of ashug havajat.
Like a part of havajat the classic ashiq poem carries out the task qaydaqoyuchuluq (normative).
Here the traditional classical ashuq melodies bayati, garayli, qoshma and tajnis based on poetic forms. There are more than 80 (“Karami”, “Afsharı”, “Kurdu”, “Dilqami”, “Yaniq Karami”) different area options of ashug melodies.
The mutual link of poetic text in ashiq melodies has an important influence on the formation of their melodic-rhythmic form features. The main rhyme of ashiq poetry is syllable rhyme. Structure of melodies is formed in connection with form and syllable structure of the poem, separation characteristics. Gurbani (16th century), Abbas Tufarqanlı, Sary Ashiq (17th century), Khasta Qasim, Ashiq Valeh, Ashiq Dilgam (18th century), Ashiq Ali, Ashiq Alasgar, Ashiq Hussain Shamkirli (19th century) and etc are considered as classics of ashiq art. Among ashiq of modern time Ashiq Hussein Bozalqanly, Ashiq Asad, Ashiq Mirza, Ashiq Islam, Ashiq Shamshir, Hussein Sarajly, Emrah Gulmammadov, Huseyn Javan, Ashiq Kamandar, Imran Hasanov, Mikail Azaflı, Akbar Jafarov and etc distinguish. Ashiq art is especially spread in Gazakh, Tovuz, Shamakhy regions, as well in settlements of historical Goycha and Borchali.